Our glossary contains frequently used terms and acronyms together with their explanations.

Real-time and fast-time simulations

Real-time simulations
How can air traffic controllers work effectively and safely under changed conditions, such as new airspace structures or modified procedures? In a real-time simulation, air traffic controllers operate in an artificially generated work environment, similar to a pilot in a flight simulator. Due to the experimental environment, the complete human-machine interface can be optimally controlled and investigated down to the very last detail. Real-time simulations integrate people into the testing of new concepts, procedures and systems. The state-of-the-art real-time simulators for area, approach and aerodrome control are an excellent tool for training ATM personnel and for performing research and development activities.

Fast-time simulations
How can airspaces, airport capacities and airline hubs be organised and exploited in the best possible way? Rather than an accurate representation of the work of an air traffic controller, fast-time simulations are based on models of the work of air traffic controllers. Their key benefit lies in the comparatively low amount of time, infrastructure and personnel required to provide a variety of different configurations for investigation. Fast-time simulations allow reliable evaluations of new solutions and optimisations of existing solutions quickly and economically.

The results generated by simulations allow a comprehensive analysis of productivity indicators (sector movements, time in sector, sector load etc.), workload, traffic density, capacity, number of conflicts, delays, usability of air traffic management systems and the human-machine interface.